Monthly Archives: April 2015

Crow curiosities: who is begging in April?

Right now, in early spring, you may have noticed a crow or two fluttering their wings and making the classic “waaah, waaahhh” sound that roughly translates to “feed me, feed me”!  Although it’s tempting to think these are young crows, it’s far too early in the breeding season for fledglings to be on the loose.  So who are these juvie doppelgangers? Adult female crows.

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Begging juveniles like this one won’t be roaming around the PNW until mid June and later.

During the nest building stage you may hear females making these sounds just while on the ground foraging with their mate or while perched near the nest like this female was.  Why do they do it?  It’s essentially a way to prime the pump and remind their mate that they’re going to need to be fed once they’re saddled to the nest and can’t forage as much for themselves.  Once they are actively incubating, they’ll continue to beg only now it’s really a demand for the food they need and can’t get for themselves without risking their eggs getting too cool.  Although males will take a turn on the nest, they do not have a formal brood patch and can’t do much more than temporarily keep the eggs insulated.

Although it’s tempting, hopefully now you won’t be fooled by this April trick!

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A male returns to the nest with a bill-load of peanuts for his hungry mate.

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Best books for corvid lovers

This post was prompted by someone on my twitter feed who asked that I put together a reading list for people who want to learn more about corvids; a totally kick-ass idea if I say so myself.  The following are all the books I have read and can speak personally to, however, I’m sure there are others and I encourage folks to add them in the comments section.  As a preface, I’ll remind readers that John Marzluff is my graduate adviser, nevertheless, I assure you that I genuinely believe he is a fantastic writer and my review of his books are not inflated in the hopes of getting approval on my dissertation. 🙂  So without much further adieu, here’s a list of all the corvid books I’ve read with a brief synopsis of the material and my recommendation.

index

In the Company of Crows and Ravens by John Marzluff and Tony Angell
If watching, feeding or rehabilitating corvids is something you do in your free time, consider this your crow bible.  Curious how long crows live?  What they do as juveniles?  The sounds they make?  The ways the interact with people?  It’s all in there.  This book remains my go-to guide for general crow knowledge.  Yet, despite the fact its backbone is rigorous science, it’s written in a way that feels very easy to digest.  John and Tony wrote it with the intent that it would be for a wide audience and I think they achieved that beautifully.  After reading this book, I have no doubt you’ll have a deeper understanding for these birds, not to mention a new admiration for Tony’s artwork.  I even used one of his drawings for the book on the invitations for my wedding (with permission, of course).

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Dog Days Raven Nights by John and Colleen Marzluff
This is the book I most often recommend to my own friends and family.  Not because it offers superior or more easily read  information on corvids, but because this book gives you the best insight into what it really means to do fieldwork.  Nearly the entirety of the book focuses on the period of time after John and Colleen had finished their graduate work in Arizona, and were conducting a post-doctoral study on ravens with Bernd Heinrich in remote Maine.  It’s organized as a back and forth between John and Colleen, which means you get two perspectives on the raven work and Colleen’s development as a dog sledder and trainer.  As a reader, you experience what it means to completely dedicate every moment, piece of sanity, and dime you have on conducting a field experiment and you walk away with a much deeper appreciation for how difficult it is to answer questions of animal behavior.  If the human dimension of science isn’t your interest, however, fear not.  The book is still loaded with fascinating information on ravens including, in my opinion, one of John’s most important contributions which is information sharing among ravens.  An excellent read for sure.

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Gifts of the Crow by John Marzluff and Tony Angell
For those looking for a more scientifically dense reading on crow behavior and neurology this is the book for you.  It doesn’t make for the lighthearted Sunday reading that ITCOCR does, but it still satisfies the trademark Marzluff style of mixing rigorous science with the anecdotal stories of crow behavior that makes us love them.  If you’ve been fascinated by the story of Gabi Mann, the little girl who feeds and gets gifts from crows, then this is the scientific background you need to see the whole picture.

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Mind of the Raven by Bernd Heinrich
Long before John Marzluff started writing books, his post-doc adviser, Bernd Heinrich, was already an expert at the game.  Heinrich has a reputation for being one of the most eloquent and engrossing natural history writers and it’s a reputation that’s been well earned.  Mind of the Raven is actually what initially peaked my interest in corvids, so in many ways I have this book to thank for the work I am doing now.  For anyone who lives with ravens, or simply has a fascination for them, I can’t recommend it enough.  Bernd’s writing will nurture your passion and give you the science to back up what you already know: ravens are badass, awesome animals.

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Crow Planet by Lyanda Lynn Haupt
Crow Planet it a book best characterized by Haupt’s journey to find curiosity and loveliness in an increasingly urban landscape where the natural world can feel further and further away.  Crows therefore, offered the perfect vehicle for looking at and appreciating what remains when the forests retreat and box stores and neighborhoods take their place.   By the author’s own admission her journey through writing Crow Planet made Haupt appreciate, “but not quite love”, crows.   Despite this, she manages to write about them with grace, and her stories will make even the biggest skeptic take another look at these animals.  Although Haupt’s background is not in science, she doesn’t omit the scientific facts, though she does take more artistic liberty when describing their antics than John or Heinrich do.  All that being said, this is an excellent book for the urban naturalist or crow watcher.

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Crow by Boria Sax
If you’re interested in crow mythology this is the book for you.  Sax takes you through time and space to explore the role of corvids in human myth, religion and art.    His thoroughness is without compare, but if anthropology is not your interest this book will prove taxing.  It’s one I happily keep on hand, but not one that I’ve ever had the patience to read all the way through.  Nevertheless, I probably should, since it’s chalk full of information and historical context that I would be better off knowing.

I’m sure there are many others I haven’t read which subsequently didn’t make this list.  Feel free to make recommendations in the comments section!

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Filed under Crow behavior, Crow curiosities, Crows and humans, Raven behavior, Raven intelligence

Why climate change may be deadly for crows

In general, crows love the ways that humans transform the environment.  We plow down forests and replace them with suburbia, creating a perfect mix of the occasional nesting tree and plenty of grassy yards perfect for looking for bugs.  On top of that, we litter and waste food, providing lots of additional foraging opportunities outside of our yards.  And even when we replace the forests with urban epicenters, we build towers perfect for nesting, leave out even more garbage, and make the environment less hospitable to predators.  But this climate change thing, well now we’ve gone too far. Even for crows.

Scientists know that climate change is going to be bad for lots of species, with some projections estimating that by 2050, 15-37% of species in the areas sampled will be committed to extinction if current emission trends continue1. Not all creatures will be worse off as the climate warms, however, some will do quite well.  Who are these lucky creatures you ask?  No, not beautiful sword-billed hummingbirds, or rare pygmy marmosets but…mosquitoes.

GO is a proud (albeit perhaps oblivious) participant in the #iamclimatechange campaign.

GO is a proud (albeit perhaps oblivious) participant in the #iamclimatechange campaign.

Warmer, and in some places wetter, climates are projected to not only increase mosquito numbers but, importantly, increase the incidence rate of West Nile virus2.  Crows are particularly susceptible to WNV over other non-corvids, making this especially bad news for them3.  One study showed that some regional crow populations across the US declined 45% since WNV was first introduced in 19994. As warmer temperatures march north, scientists predict we’ll see WNV not only increasing in areas where is exists now, but spreading to northern latitudes where it may have a particularly acute effects2 (I’m talking to you, Canada!).

By extension, this is also bad news for us, since humans can also get sick from being bitten by infected mosquitoes (there is no evidence we can be infected from handling sick or dead crows, however5).  Not to mention all the other diseases mosquitoes carry that kill people and birds.  So whether you care about climate change because you care about crows, humans, or any of the other organisms that are/will be negatively affected, now is the time to do something about it.  Individuals can have profound effects by making changes in their own lives, and by putting social pressure on others to do the same.  There’s plenty of reason to be hopeful if we act!  To learn more about the #iamclimatechange campaign that GO was nice enough to participate in please check out the tumblr or facebook page.

Citations

1. Thomas, C.D., Cameron,A., Green, R.E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L.J., Collingham, Y.C., Erasmus, F.N., Ferreira de Siqueira, M., Grainger, A., Hannah, L., Hufhes, L., Huntley, B., van Jaarsveld, A., Midgley, G.F., Miles, L., Ortega-Huertam, M.A., Townsend Peterson, A., Philips, O.L., and Williams, S.E. (2003) Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427: 145-148

2. Tam, B. Y., and Tsuji, L.J.S. (2014) West Nile virus in American crows (corvus brachyrhynchos) in Canada: projecting the influences of climate change.  GeoJournal DOI 10.1007/s10708-014-9609-z

3. Yaremych, S. A., Warner, R.E., Mankin, P.C., Brawn J.D., Raim, A., & Novak, R. (2004) West Nile virus and high death rates in American crows.  Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10, 709.

4. LaDeau, S.L., Kilpatrick, A.M., and Marra, P.P. (2007) West Nile virus emergence and the large-scale declines of North American bird populations. Nature Letters. 447

5. http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/faq/deadBirds.html

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Filed under Crow disease, Crow life history, Crows and humans

How to turn your yard into subirdia

John Marzluff and his publisher, Yale University Press, recently teamed up to make a 5min film describing how to turn your yard into a haven for birds of all kinds.  After almost a decade of research, John’s latest book, Subirdia, describes what he’s learned about the avian diversity that can exist in the suburban landscape.  Don’t underestimate the power of you have to create critical habitat for birds and other wildlife within your own backyard.  Check out the YouTube video for all the details.  You may even spot a cameo from me!

John Marzluff's newest book which describes the awesome power of suburbia to become a heaven for a huge diversity of birds.  Illustrations by my friend and colleague, Jack Delapp.

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