Crow curiosities: can crows see UV?

Recently, a marvelous set of blue crow photos from Carl Bergstrom had the internet’s corvid fans doing a collective double take. In addressing what could be responsible for such spectacularly odd images, many people’s first instinct was to wonder if these photos might be revealing the hidden ultra-violet lives of crows. After all, as a group, passerines (aka songbirds, of which crows are part of) are well known for their abilities to express themselves and see beyond the visual spectrum available to people. But while, “can crows see in UV? Is their perception of the feathers adorning their flock mates different from our own?,” feel like simple enough questions, a google search after their answers results in an almost unprecedented silence from the otherwise vast body of crow knowledge that exists beyond your search bar. Sure, you can find the occasional popular science article that talks about the visual systems of birds and maybe includes a photo of a crow, but these articles never provide citations and most speak simply in generalizations about passerines, not about crows specifically. The reason for this knowledge gap is that while the visual systems of birds is generally well studied, there are over 10,000 species of birds and not all of them can be the darling of every field of research. So while crows take a disproportionate share of our scientific attention, relative to many other species, not much has actually been done on their visual systems; what does exist is spread out and sometimes hard to find. But this is a question that comes up time and time again so let’s take a moment to harness what has been done, and offer the best possible answers to these questions that science currently has to offer.

Before we get to the heart of our questions though, let’s take a beat to review the more technical aspects of vision, and why our visual experience of the world is different from our dogs’ or possibly crows’. Vertebrate eyes work fundamentally via the same 5 step process: Step 1) light enters eye through pupil, Step 2) the cornea bends the light that passes through the pupil, Step 3) the light then passes through the lens which focuses it on the retina, Step 4) rods and cones of retina detect light and color and, Step 5) cells in retina convert this into impulses which go to brain. But while the general process is conserved across most species, the details of each of these steps can vary in life altering ways. Crucial to this discussion is that fourth step that involves the rods (which are motion sensitive light detectors) and the cones (which are contrast sensitive color detectors). Depending on the classes of cones a species possess, an animal can be either dichromatic (most mammals), trichromatic (primates and marsupials), or tetrachromatic (birds and reptiles), which translates to different levels of color vision. 1 While we are able to detect red, green and blue light, most birds have a fourth cone that allows them to more acutely detect short wavelength colors near the ultraviolet range. The ability to simply detect UV isn’t enough though (in fact humans are sensitive to UV light), you must also have the ability to transmit that part of the spectrum. While our eyes filter it out, rendering it invisible to us, birds have special oil droplets in their cones that allow for the passage of UV light, while limiting its damage.2 Among birds, that 4th cone (called the short-wave sensitive 1 or SWS1) can be further divided into two variants: the violent-sensitive variant (VS birds) or the ultra-violet sensitive (UVS birds) variant. Without getting any more technical, suffice it to say that UVS birds have a much keener visual experience of the UV spectrum, relative to VS birds, though both can detect UV light.3

The function of this “enhanced” vision is many fold.4 For one, it allows for greater contrast of the environment, rendering what may look to our eyes as a flat wall of green vegetation, as a much more dynamic plane, enhancing a bird’s ability to fly through dense foliage. Like insects, UV sensitivity is also important among many types of nectarivorous (nectar drinking) and frugivorous (fruit-eating) birds. Many fruits, for example, are coated in a UV-reflecting waxy substance that helps advertise their availability to would be seed dispersing birds. And finally, descriptive UV patterns in feathers opens an entire world of visual signaling that is otherwise completely hidden from us. Given the ways we might image crows would benefit from exploiting any one of these possibilities, it makes sense that they would possess the kind of rich UV experience that many other birds are known for.

Which brings us, finally, to the rub. While it’s true that most passerines are what we call UVS birds, corvids, like flycatchers and most raptors, are VS birds, meaning their visual system is biased toward the violet-spectrum and they are not considered especially sensitive to UV light.3,5 The low UV-detection abilities of corvids and many raptors, appears to offer a lifeline to smaller passerines, which exploit these visual differences in their plumage, allowing them to remain conspicuous to potential mates, while staying inconspicuous to their potential predators.6 Given this finding, we would expect crows not to, for example, show a great deal of UV detail in their feathers, and the research seems to bear this out. A study of large-billed crows found them to be so weakly iridescent, that the authors proposed their violet-blues hues may simply be an artifact of chance, and play no functional role.7 Likewise, unlike many other passerines, crows don’t seem to communicate aspects of their identify via secret codes in their feathers. A 2007 study, for example, confirmed that American crows, fish crows, and Chihuahuan ravens are sexually monochromatic from an avian visual perspective, meaning there’s no UV signaling of “male” or “female” hidden from us in their feathers.8 These birds were among only 14, of the 166 North American passerines sampled, for which this was true.

Despite these findings though, the role of UV in the lives of crows and other corvids hasn’t been rendered completely immaterial. When presented against high contrast backdrops (green foliage), fish crows are more adept at picking out UV reflecting berries than matte black Vaccinum berries. On the other hand, when both are presented in front of a backdrop that offers no contrasting advantage to the UV reflecting fruit (sandy backdrops) they pick out both berries equally.9 And while the UV spectrum may not be super useful to crows for coding information, that doesn’t mean the feathers of corvids don’t carry any weight. Common magpies, for example, convey all sorts of information from sex to age to territory status in their iridescent tail feathers.10 Taken together, these findings seems to suggest that there is a lot more to unpack with respect to the role of UV in the lives of corvids than, well, meets the eye, and species-specific studies may be necessary to fully parse the potential nuance.

In the mean time, while the errant photo of a blue crow may be eye catching, it’s probably not revealing an otherwise visually hidden secret, like that time a ghost showed up in the background of your vacation photo. Instead, blue crows are probably just an artifact of the photographer’s white balance gone awry in the golden hues of a fine day.

Literature cited

  1. Bowmaker JK. 1998. Evolution of colour vision in vertebrates. Eye 12, 541–547
  2. Lind O, Mitkus M, Olsson P, Kelber A. 2014 Ultraviolet vision in birds: the importance of transparent eye media. Proc. R. Soc. B 281: 20132209.
  3. Ödeen A, Håstad O & Alström P. 2011. Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation – the passerines. BMC Evol Biol 11: 313.
  4. Withgott J. 2000. Taking a Bird’s-Eye View…in the UV: Recent studies reveal a surprising new picture of how birds see the world. BioScience 50: 854–859.
  5. Brecht KF, Nieder A. 2020. Parting self from others: Individual and self-recognition in birds. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 116: 99-108.
  6. Håstad O, Victorsson J, Ödeen A. 2005. Differences in color vision make passerines less conspicuous in the eyes of their predators. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102: 6391-6394.
  7. Lee E, Miyazaki J, Yoshioka S, Lee H, Sugita S. 2012. The weak iridescent feather color in the Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos. Ornithol Sci 11: 59–64.
  8. Muir DE. 2007. Avian Visual Perspective on Plumage Coloration Confirms Rarity of Sexually Monochromatic North American Passerines. The Auk 124: 155–161.
  9. Schaefer HM, Levey DJ, Schaefer V, and Avery ML. 2006. The role of chromatic and achromatic signals for fruit detection in birds. Behavioral Ecology 17: 784-789
  10. Nam HY, Lee S, Lee J, Choi C, and Choe JC. 2016. Multiple Structural Colors of the Plumage Reflect Age, Sex, and Territory Ownership in the Eurasian Magpie Pica pica. Acta Ornithologica 5: 83-92.


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22 responses to “Crow curiosities: can crows see UV?

  1. Fiona Jewkes

    I just wanted to say how incredibly fascinating I found this blog. The different number and use of rods/cones (and the fourth one) in nature and across species are just mind blowing. Thank you so much for such a beautiful clear explanation. I suspect you have managed to make a very difficult subject seem straightforward – the sign of an excellent teacher.

  2. Thank you, Covid Research, an interesting post: well researched and specific to a subject that is specialised; love it!

    Your post from earlier this year (?) about the mask wearing in the park was equally as ace (though this sounds a bit creepy now! 😉 – it’s not meant to be!
    fascinating! Really! Many thanks!
    Nick xo

  3. Anastasia

    Intriguing article! Although the ending didn’t reveal any crow sorcery around turning blue, it was a fascinating read. Crows are endlessly fascinating little beasties. Thank you for the time and energy you pour into these blog posts. I appreciate your knowledge and perspective and look forward to seeing your posts in my email – I know I will be enriched.

  4. Tracy OBrien

    WOW! thank you so much for sharing these pictures! I didn’t think crows could get any more stunning!!!!

    Peace, Tracy  Please  help Stop Puppy Mills: Never buy pets from pet stores! Fully check out any online breeder. Ask to see where dogs are kept. Legitimate breeders will gladly show you.  /(^-^)\     (=’.’=) “All we have comes from God, and we give it out of His hand”  I Chronicles 29:14

  5. Ron Read

    Thanks, Dr. Swift! Fascinating and informative, as always. I’m especially excited by having a reference list to chase down.

  6. Jeff

    I’ve long wondered about this sort of question for animals generally, not just corvids, and to some extent even among people, so it’s a delight to read something directly on this topic. I teach college physics and often run a spectroscopy lab (using old prism spectroscopes, where the user’s eye is the light detector), and over the years I’ve observed considerable variability among young adult humans (i.e. my students) in their ability to perceive light near the nominal 400 nm short-wavelength cutoff for human vision. Most people’s sensitivity drops to an effective nil between 400 and 410 nm, but some don’t see a line at 410 nm, while there are a small number of people (very roughly one in forty or so, and of the ones who do roughly three quarters were born female) who can perceive a spectral line at 389 nm without difficulty. It’s hard enough to find information about this aspect of human vision; the idea of variability among individuals in nonhuman species is one where the data simply don’t exist.

  7. Neddie K

    Slightly off topic: I have now seen twice a white patch or streak of feathers in a distant crow. I didn’t know what it was. When I saw it again in a different crow (I assume) it seemed as though at a certain angle of the sun, some of the wing and possibly throat area reflected back a white color. A certain metallic-color quality of the feathers perhaps?

    Has anyone else observed this?

  8. John O

    Just because it may interest y’all: like most mammals, cervids (deer and elk) lack cone cells for red light, which is why orange looks yellow to them. But they also lack the yellow oil we have in our eyes, that absorbs UV and so helps prevent cataracts; they rarely live long enough to develop cataracts. I wonder how far into the UV we could see if we didn’t have that oil, even without that fourth cone cell?

    The whiteners and brighteners in detergents are UV reflectors, supposed to make the colors of your clothes “pop.” Cervids can see much farther into the ultraviolet than we can, and clothes washed in ordinary detergents are supposed to make you “glow,” to them, especially at dawn and dusk, at the same time they make you smell like a perfume factory. I’ve read that deer might be 1,000 times as sensitive to blue/violet/UV as we are. You know how the last light, the last color to fade from the western sky at night, is blue? The upper atmosphere is still in sunlight, the oxygen and nitrogen still absorbing and re-emitting blue light, and perhaps refracting them a ways around the limb of the planet. And I recall reading that atmosphere refracts near UV four times as well as it does blue light, which is one reason cervids have a “magic hour” after “full dark” (to us), and before “first light,” when they can see very well, but their diurnal predators–us–are still blind.

  9. Mary Beth

    This was so beautifully and informatively explained! I just watched a UC Davis class on pollination (one of the few pluses of Covid-19) with mentions of plants’ use of ultraviolet and red guides for insects and hummingbirds. I was able to understand it so much better after reading this post.

  10. Ufuk Yazkan

    Thank you for your explanation. I’d like to share my observation on corvids. There are hooded crows and magpies around my flat, I guess their number equal. I leave some remaining food on a flower pot in my balcony occasionally whether they are around or not, magpies are almost always the first to discover. Only in case the food is cheese, crows discover first.

  11. Draco18s

    The one thing I have been trying to find for years has been photos of magpies (or other corvids) taken that include the UV spectrum and then false-colored (per usual methods).

    And this so far is the only image I’ve found:

  12. Alexandra

    That picture is ridiculous. The crows are blue because they are under a cool shadow while the background is warm because of the direct sun. Our cameras cannot adjust for two different white balances. Either the background will be correct or the shadows will be correct. You can’t get both. Adjust the white balance to make the crows black and the background will be bright orange. Jesus.

    • I don’t think there’s any reason to be so aggravated that someone doesn’t have as strong of an understanding of camera lighting as you. Try eating a banana and sitting outside for a bit if it takes something this small to annoy you.

      • Pernille

        You made me laugh! Everyone just seems a bit on edge lately… so do bananas calm us?
        I just finished reading Raven Master and wondered about how Raven’s see each other and I too found nothing good on the web/net to give a clear answer for what I considered a simple question. Thanks for your clear and interesting article.

      • Thanks Pernille! As for the banana, I don’t think there’s any specific evidence for their calming effects, but eating something nutritional but sweet like fruit, generally makes us feel a bit better, don’t you think?

  13. Arnold

    Thanks for the information on the vision of crows. I just recently got an interest in them and have difficulty finding anything new. It seems it’s just the same few studies referenced over and over.

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