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Gray is the new black

For the past six years, my life has been dedicated to the “funerals” of birds perpetually dressed for the occasion.  This pursuit has provided some of the highlights of my life and lodged crows so deep in my heart I suspect they might show up on an ultrasound.  The still vastly untapped world of comparative thanatology (the study of animal death) is one I have every hope of returning to, but I’d be fooling myself if I didn’t admit I was ready for a change.  There is much more wildlife and natural history to be had in the urban jungle than people realize, but as a fieldsite it can start to grate on your mind and spirit.  The suspicious onlookers, inattentive texters, cranky homeowners, fastidious leaf blowers, relentless piles of dog shit, and generous helpings of stuff you couldn’t even imagine, like the truck that blew bubbles as it drove around the block and always seemed to drive by just as I started the experiment.  After so many years, this work left me yearning for a new set of challenges and maybe the opportunity to scrub earth from my feet, rather than the film of carbon, copper, and zink that peels invisibly off the passing cars.

You can imagine my great delight then, when I was offered the opportunity to conduct a year long PostDoc position in Denali National Park, studying the foraging behavior of Canada jays; adorable corvid cousins to my beloved crows.  The project is a collaboration between the University of Washington’s John Marzluff and the National Parks Service.  Apart from its brief duration, the project is everything I wanted.  A complete change of scenery, a new and challenging study question, loyalty to my favorite family of birds, and limited field seasons that would not require me to uproot my family.  Needless to say I jumped at the opportunity.

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At mile 66 of the park road, the Eielson visitor center offers spectacular views.

In a nutshell, the big picture question we are after is: are rising and fluctuating temperatures reducing the shelf life of the food jays store to survive the winter? The worry is that without a deep freeze to keep the perishable things that jays cache like mushrooms, meat scraps, and berries well preserved, their food is going bad earlier in the winter than in years past.  Since they start breeding well before the spring food flush, this would be a major problem.

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Although toxic to humans, the jays are happy to dine on the iconic amanita mushroom.

Answering this question will take years of study, so don’t expect any headlines from me.  Instead, my research will help fill the existing knowledge gaps and create a foundation on which future studies can build.  Namely our goal is to document what and where Denali’s jays are caching.  To accomplish this I, along with a tech, are spending 6-8 weeks in the park this fall to document the kinds of foods they cache and where they stash them. Then returning in “spring” (March, but there’s still 6ft of snow on the ground) to watch them retrieve caches. To the great relief of my parents, this fieldwork will not take place in the more predator rich back country of the park, but rather the front country near park headquarters, where over the past two years the park’s avian ecologists have been working to identify and color-band the existing pairs.

Documenting these activities is a textbook example of “Easier said than done”. The birds move quickly and can disappear out of sight with magician-like talent. There is often dense foliage blocking my view, and what they are eating is typically small.  Seeing what/if/where in terms of foraging and caching can sometimes be done in the field with binoculars, but the main way we are accruing data is by using a video camera with a powerful zoom to film the behaviors we see, and then rewatching it in slow motion to try and tease out details we missed in the field.  Attempting to get this stuff on film comes with its own set of challenges though, and the majority of our film clips are well, see for yourself…(NSFW language).

Out of the dozens of bad clips we get each day though, there are enough containing some actual data to start seeing a meaningful picture of what’s happening (like the one below), and to keep us pressing forward. We’ve already documented food items that have surprised the more senior jay scientists we are collaborating with, and I’m starting to envision what kinds of questions future researchers could ask based on my work here.

Needless to say, I am tremendously excited for this new, albeit short-lived chapter of my life. It’s a delight to be challenged by a new set of questions and contribute to something with more direct conservation implications.  And the new office isn’t half bad either.

It even comes with the usual cast of colorful office characters.  There’s the chatterbox:

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Pine squirrel

And the prankster that thinks it’s funny to hide around corners and jump out at you, damn near scaring you out of your skin:

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Spruce grouse are slow to flush, preferring to wait until the last possible moment before exploding out of the shrubbery.

And of course, there’s that one grumpy gus that is constantly paranoid someone is going to steal her lunch despite labeling her food like a dozen times.  “No one wants your crappy squirrel, Brenda!”

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Northern hawk owls are among the few daytime hunting owls.

Plus everyone else that’s just trying to mind their p’s and q’s and make it through the day.

So, while I miss my crows a great deal (did I mention there aren’t crows in Denali at all?) I think this new gray look is suiting me quite well.

***

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Can crows and ravens hybridize?

This feels like a simple enough question but answering it requires a check on how scientists define ‘species,’ a look at the phylogeny of crows and ravens (that’s the study of the evolutionary development and diversification of species i.e. the study of the tree of life), as well as an understanding of how their biology determines whether “Can they hybridize?” turns into “Do they hybridize?”

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A rather curious question indeed.

For decades, the textbook standard for defining the term ‘species’ in introductory biology classes has been the biological species concept.  First coined in 1942 by ornithologist Ernst Mayr, this is the idea that a species is a population of animals that share a gene pool, and can successfully mate with each other, but not with animals outside their gene pool. Almost always, the pudding offered as proof is a mule; the sterile offspring of a breeding attempt between a horse and an ass.  “See,” your teacher would say, “The offspring are sterile because it’s the result of two different species,” and then they would slap their hands together like a satisfied chef.  But of course, nature is rarely so inclined to follow such rules.

In fact, lots of animals we consider distinct species can and do interbreed.  Possibly even more problematic is that there are plenty of living things that don’t reproduce sexually at all. So how do you define them under this concept?  These issues have left scientists jaded and unsatisfied with the biological species concept and given rise to new classification schemes that don’t consider sex.  One of the most robust rivals to the biological concept is the phylogenetic species concept, where species are defined by their evolutionary histories.  The problem with this concept though is that sometimes the amount of hair splitting that goes on divides formally unified species beyond what is perhaps biologically appropriate.  Meaning, if two species have a distinct evolutionary history, but fulfill the same ecological role, look the same, and freely interbreed, are they really distinct species? Without going too far further down this rabbit hole suffice it to say that there still remains no universally accepted scientific definition of a species, and that more than likely the most comprehensive approach is one that takes into consideration an each organism’s unique situation and leans on multiple concepts as appropriate.

This is relevant to American crows and common ravens because knowing that they are two different species might incline some people to believe that the answer to the question “Can they interbreed?” is, by definition, “No.”  However, hopefully now it’s clear that such dogmatism will only hamper our understanding of the situation.  To advance further on this question, we instead need turn our attention to the tree of life.

For animals to freely interbreed, they generally need to share a very recent relative.  Given their geographical overlap and how similar American crows and common ravens look, it might be tempting to assume they must be quite closely related, but of course by now you know what assuming will get you. As you can see from the phylogentic tree below, you need to go back four ancestors (or about 7 million years) to find the relative shared by both birds.1  American crows are actually more closely related to the collared crows of China than they are to common ravens.  So, while we haven’t ruled on our original question one way or another just yet, this suggests it shouldn’t happen extremely freely.

Crow phylogeny

Jønsson et al. 2012

For the last piece we need to consider the real life, biological relationship between these birds.  Most crucially, we need to ask if, when in close proximity, they generally tolerate each other and socialize.

A paper out earlier this year by Freeman and Miller answers this question with a resounding, “No.”2 Thanks to thousands of observations provided by citizen scientists, the authors were able to show that most interactions between the two are aggressive, and that crows are almost always the aggressor, particularly during the reproductive period. This is thanks in no small part to the fact that ravens will depredate crow nests. Therefore, come breeding time, crows will be most anxious to evict ravens, not bed them.

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A crow attempts to chase a raven out of its territory

With all this in mind, it seems we can finally conclude that the most informed answer would be, “Ravens and crows do not hybridize…

…most of the time.”

Ok time for me to come clean.  The truth is that I’ve buried the lead a little bit here, because in fact we know the answer to the question “can they hybridize.” In 1990’s Beth Jefferson documented a successful breeding attempt between a wild American crow and common raven in Toronto, Canada.3  In 1990, the single raven started showing up in the area; a surprise to the local birders since they didn’t usually encounter ravens for another 145km north.  Over the course of the next three years, the raven appeared to be buddying up to a crow in the area.  It wasn’t until 1993, however, that Beth and other locals were able to document the pair nest building, attending to nestlings, and successfully fledgling two young.

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One of the hybrid young documented by Beth Jefferson

So why on earth did I drag this out so much? Because your take home message should not be that crows and ravens are going buck wild making little cravens.  Just as one swallow does not a summer make, one or two craven babies does not a habit make.  By and large, American crows and common ravens are reproductively isolated and do not hybridize.  But under the strangest of circumstances there’s no questioning that…

life

Literature cited

  1. Jønsson K.A., Fabre P.H., and Irestedt, M. 2012.  Brains, tools innovations and biogeography in crows and ravens.  BCM Evolutionary Biology 12
    https://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-12-72
  2. Freeman B.G. and Miller, E.T. 2018.  Why do crows attack ravens? The roles of predation threat, resource competition, and social behavior.  The Auk 135: 857-867
    http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1642/AUK-18-36.1
  3. Jefferson E.A. 1994.  Successful hybridization of common raven and American crow.  Ontario Birds.  https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/27-35%20notes%20OB%20Vol12%231%20Apr1994.pdf

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Big changes you should know about

Dear followers,

First off, hello! It’s been a minute since you last heard from me, huh?  Well in that time there have been three major changes which warrant special announcements.  Most significantly is announcement #1: I finished my PhD!

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I wish I had been in a better place to discuss the process and even invite you to my defense, but it just didn’t go down that way.  It was a chaotic sprint to the finish that had me pulling my hair out up until the very last moment.  Why you ask?  Well because of announcement #2.  I was in an unusual time crunch to finish because I had a PostDoc waiting for me only a few days after the end of summer quarter (i.e my cutoff to graduate).  As we speak I am writing from my desk in Denali National Park where I am beginning my 1-year long  study on Canada jays!

Yes, I am mighty sad to say goodbye to the crows (though I’ll never really say goodbye), but I am so excited about working with this delightful species, particularly because of the broad conservation implications of this work.  You can read more about the specifics here and expect a dedicated post very soon.

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This bring us to announcement #3: the whole blog got an overhaul and a facebook page!  With a new title and research project under my belt, I thought it was only fair the blog got some new life too.  I reached out to a former crow field tech turned full time natural history illustrator Madison Mayfield to design a logo for the blog, and boy, did she do a flippin fantastic job.  I’ve also updated all of the pages and given the blog an official homepage.  Please poke around and see what’s new.

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I’ve been a bit reticent about creating a facebook page because I already do so much science communication between here, twitter and Instagram (both @corvidresearch) that I worry a facebook page may spread me too thin.  But I recognize that a good number of my followers here are not active on those other platforms, and I’d like to offer some of the scicomm work I do in those other places to those folks, including the ability to play #CrowOrNo.  In addition, I felt a real need for an official community space where you can more easily connect with one another to share photos, videos and stories.  Although comments on the Corvid Research facebook page are closed, I’ve created a connected Corivd Research group meant as a way for my followers to connect with each other (since you already have plenty of ways of connecting with me).  I will moderate the group insofar as membership requests and issues with trolling or abuse, but do not plan on being especially active there myself.  That is a space meant for you.  All that said, I want to be clear that the blog will always be the primary place I produce articles. If anything these changes mean things will be more busy here, not less! 

Phew, this has been a lot of updates!  Please check everything out and give me your feedback, particularly as far as the facebook stuff goes.  Maybe you don’t really want or need that space and if that’s the case I may get rid of it.  And shoot me your Canada jay questions so I can incorporate the answers into the upcoming post!

Best wishes,
Dr. Kaeli Swift 🙂

 

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The birds and the bees

~This post describes sex in explicit terms ~

It’s springtime in Seattle which means the air is marked with the scent of warm, wet earth, the cherry trees are in full bloom, and our conversations of the goings on in the natural world are couched in the phrase “the birds and the bees”.  While its origin story is not completely clear, it’s very likely that this euphemism has been around for hundreds of years, dating back as early as 1644 in the Evelyn Diaries.  Despite the phrases’ ubiquity for discussing human sexuality, ironically very few people know much about the sex lives of the phrase’s subjects.  This is attributable largely to the fact that how these animals procreate is quite different from the mammalian systems we are familiar with.  So in the spirit of springtime let’s talk about the birds and the bees, the real story of the birds and the bees.

Birds
The most consequential departure by birds from mammalian systems is that most birds lack any kind of external sex organ. In contrast, most other kinds of animals have sex organs that are either maintained outside the body permanently, or can emerge temporarily as needed. Among birds, there are exceptions to this but fair warning you’ll probably never look at a duck in the same lighthearted way again if you pursue this line of knowledge. Which is to say of course that you absolutely should.

As far as crows and other songbirds are concerned though, sex must be conducted without penetration by a sex organ. So instead, these birds copulate by way of the “cloacal kiss”.  The cloaca is a bird’s single external vent and it’s used for both waste elimination and reproductive activities. During the breeding season, both the male and female’s vents swell.  To copulate, the male mounts the female and pushes her tail aside with his.  Once they make cloacal contact, the sperm that’s been stored in his cloaca is transferred.  It’s an awkward looking balancing act that lasts only a few seconds.  After the initial copulatory event the pair may mate again several times within minutes or over the course of weeks.

Whereas people need to consider timing, birds can successfully mate even in the absence of ovulation.  That’s because females have specialized sperm storage tubes inside their oviducts.  A female’s vagina is very picky, however, and only a very small number of the male’s sperm will reach this holding chamber.  Depending on the species, once there a female can store the living sperm for weeks or months. The exact mechanism of how the sperm are subsequently released is not entirely known, but possibilities include that it’s the mechanical pressure of the passing ovum (unfertilized eggs) that releases the sperm, or that it’s directed by hormonal changes during ovulation.1

One additional consequence of sperm storage is that it allows for different eggs within the same clutch to be sired by unique males.  In crows for example, about 80% of a nest has been sired by the female’s permanent partner.  It is unclear how many of these extra pair copulations are either solicited by or forced on the female.

Bees
While mid-air copulations have never been confirmed in birds, honey bees do in fact mate on the wing during what’s called the mating flight.  A newly minted, week old queen will take to their air followed by thousands of male drones.  She will only mate with about 10-20 of these individuals though.  To mate, the male inserts his endophallus (bee penis) into the queen’s sting chamber.  Once he has deposited his sperm, the male detaches.  Unfortunately for the male, however, he doesn’t do so with all the parts he arrived with.  His endophallus will rip off and remain inside the female, most often killing him.  As if that wasn’t brutal enough, the next male is required to remove the previous suitor’s leftovers before being granted the ability to seal his own fate.

By the end of the mating flight, the queen will be carrying hundreds of millions of sperm, most of which will be used immediately to begin fertilizing her eggs.  Like birds, the queen has a specialized storage chamber called a spermathecal where she keeps the unused sperm.  The stored sperm from her mating flight will last up to 4 years, after which the queen’s reign will come to an end, and the cycle begins anew.

Literature cited

  1. SASANAMI, T., MATSUZAKI, M., MIZUSHIMA, S., & HIYAMA, G. (2013). Sperm Storage in the Female Reproductive Tract in Birds. The Journal of Reproduction and Development, 59(4), 334–338. http://doi.org/10.1262/jrd.2013-038

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NCI corvid class open for registration

Hi Folks!  A few posts ago I mentioned the North Cascade Institute’s corvid class taught every June by John Marzluff and myself.  Good news; registration is officially open!

For those of you that missed my previous post, the corvid class is an overnight course hosted in the beautiful North Cascades alongside those iconic glacial blue lakes. During the class we will venture into snowy mountain passes to search for grey jays and nutcrackers and then head down to the Methow valley in search of magpies.  It’s not unusual for us to see nearly every species of corvid found in Washington state by the end of the trip.  To finish each day you’ll be treated to short corvid lectures and the wonderful meals provide by the NCI cooks.  It’s a wonderful class, so if you have the means I encourage you to register.  There’s limited spots available, however, so do it quickly!

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“Mirror, mirror on the wall

am I the smartest of them all?”

…Is not a question crows are asking, despite what you may have heard.  Because they, like basically all the super smart birds, are really, really bad at the mirror test.

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A juvenile jungle crow catches its reflection in a window. Photo: Paul Brown

This might contradict what you’ve heard elsewhere.  But the reality is that corvid after corvid fails the mirror test.  Except two European magpies.1  That’s right,  every sound bite you’ve ever heard that corvids possess self awareness (as evidenced by their excellence at the mirror test) is based on the performance of two birds. But more on that later.

In humans, self recognition in mirrors emerges reliably when we are about two years old and it marks the beginning of a developmental process that culminates in the rich consciousness that makes us human, at least abstractly.  Given a mirror’s significance to our own understanding of the self, it’s no surprise we’re so curious to see what non-humans animals do, and more curious still to see if it can show us whether they share our possession of consciousness.  In fact, putting animals in front of mirrors and looking for signs of recognition is something we’ve been doing, at least officially, since the 1970’s.   Since those initial studies on chimps, a debate has raged over the outcomes and overall efficacy of such tests.

A mirror test is generally composed of two parts.  The first is spontaneous self directed behaviors.  In other words, when an animal encounters a mirror for the first time, does it react like it’s looking at itself with behaviors like self exploration or does it freak out at this stranger suddenly standing in front of it?  What about after it has 100 hours of experience with a mirror or a 1,000?  The second test is known as the ‘mark test.’ A mark like a red or blue dot is applied to the animal without its knowledge and we watch and see if once it gets in front of the mirror it tries to remove or at least touch the mark.

With respect to both these tests, from African grey parrots to New Caledonian crows, we see consistent failure, or at best inconsistent maybe-kinda success.2,3 For the record, while there’s no published tests that have been done on American crows, I can tell you that I’ve watched reflective windows and car mirrors ruin many a breeding crow’s afternoon plans. In Mind of the Raven, Bernd Heinrich reports a mostly neophobic response among his captive birds, punctuated in some individuals with moderate curiosity.

So what of Gretie and Goldie, those two magpies that did show higher mark recognition when given a mirror than control birds?  There’s two problems. The first that they used stickers to mark the birds and it’s difficult to know whether it was really the mirror eliciting the behavior or if maybe they could just feel the stickers. This idea was championed after a study done on jackdaws found that birds without mirrors detected the stickers just as often as those with mirrors.4  If they had detected them equally zero times then it might just indicate that jackdaws are bad at the test, but the fact that they did detect them in both cases is what raises the alarm because it shows the birds were somehow sensing the stickers in the absence of the mirror.

The second problem is simply:  what can two birds, especially out of a sample size of five, really tell us about whether corvids understand their reflection in a mirror anyway?  Not much.

Maybe you’re thinking “well, perhaps they just don’t understand how mirrors work at all, so of course they don’t recognize themselves.”  This isn’t a bad idea but it doesn’t appear to be true.  In that study on New Caledonian crows for example, while the birds didn’t show any self recognition behaviors, they could use the mirror to find hidden food. This demonstrates that they can exploit the properties of a mirror, and understand that mirrors reflect objects in the real world.  We see the same in grey parrots.

So now that I’ve gone and dampened things, let’s just go ahead and soak the rest of that blanket.  Because even if corvids or other birds passed the mark test with flying colors, it wouldn’t necessarily mean they are self aware   which is kind of the point of the whole test.  Enter pigeons.  Since the 1980’s we’ve known that pigeons excel at the mark test with a little bit of training, just like they can excel at shape discrimination or any number of other seemingly complex tasks.5  But the ability to learn isn’t in and of itself a reflection of capacity for complex thinking.  After all, it only takes 8 days to train a spider to solve a maze.6

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Pigeons in the original Epstein et al. 1981 paper

So does failing the mirror test mean corvids don’t possess theory of mind or the capacity for self awareness?  No.  Based on other studies, particularly those in ravens, it may be more likely that a mirror test, at least in it’s most common form, is just not a biologically appropriate way to ask this question.7,8  So don’t write off the capacity of a corvid to know thyself just yet.  But maybe offer a polite “ah, hem” the next time someone marvels at the narcissism of magpies.

Literature cited

  1. Prior, H., Schwartz, A. and Güntürkün, O. (2008). Mirror-induced behavior in the magpie (Pica pica): Evidence of self-recognition.  PLOS Biology 6: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060202
  2. Pepperberg, I. M., Garcia, S. E., Jackson, E. C., & Marconi, S. (1995). Mirror use by African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 109: 182
  3. Medina, F.S., Taylor, A.H., Hunt, G.R., and Grey, R.D. (2011).  New Caledonian crows ‘ responses to mirrors.  Animal Behaviour 82: 981-993
  4. Soler, M., Perez-Contreras, T., and Peralta-Sanchez, J. (2014).  Mirror-mark test performance on jackdaws reveals potential methodological problems in the use of stickers in avian-mark test studies.  PLOS ONE 9: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086193
  5. Epstein, R., Lanza, R.P., and Skinner, B.F. (1981).  “Self-awareness” in the pigeon.  Science 212: 695-696
  6. Punzo, F. (2000). An experimental analysis of maze learning in the wolf spider, Trochosa parthenus (Areaneae: Lycosidae).  Florida Scientist 63: 155-159
  7. Clary, D. and Kelly M.D. (2016).  Graded mirror self recognition by Clark’s nutcrackers.  Scientific Reports 6: doi:10.1038/srep36459
  8. Bugnyar, T., Reber, S.A., and Buckner, C.  (2016) Ravens attribute visual access to unseen competitors.  Nature Communications 7.  doi:10.1038/ncomms10506

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I need your help or Corvid Research is toast

About three years into my graduate program the emails, letters and blog comments started. A trickle at first, maybe only one or two things every couple of months. Now, five years into my program, the questions, calls for help, requests for opinions, and desire to share stories of corvid joy, sadness or sheer mystery are relentless.

And I love it. It’s one of my favorite parts of my work. Few graduate students get to engage with the public in the way that I do or will ever experience the public appreciating the research they do or the expertise they’ve acquired through the often tremendous personal sacrifice of being a grad student. Hardly any will ever get an email saying “your research is so cool” or “keep up the good work” or “your work changed my heart and mine about something” or “thank you.” They won’t ever hear those words despite the fact their research may have far more reaching and positive effects on the health and wellness of their non-human and human communities than mine does. But I do get to hear those things because the nature of my research means it makes for a cool blog and gets written about in publications like National Geographic and The Week.  And I am truly grateful for that. But on behalf of all those students who aren’t so well known I want to use my platform to ask something of you now.  Because our existence as graduate students is under attack.

If you’ve been keeping up with current events you’ll know that our GOP leaders are working on a tax reform bill. What many people do not yet know, however, is that the current bill will do away with key features intended to help make higher education affordable. Including:

–Section 117(d), which exempts tuition waivers from being counted as taxable income

–Section 127, which exempts employer education assistance from being taxed

–The Lifetime Learning Tax Credit

–The Student Loan Interest Deduction

–Consolidation of the American Education Opportunity Credit to only be used for 4 + 1 years

I could write whole blog posts on every one of those points but for the sake of brevity let’s focus just on the first one, the tax exemption for tuition waivers.

Most grad students working in STEM fields (Science Technology Engineering and Math) fund their degree with teaching assistantships or research assistantships. In my case, I started with an RA because I had an NSF Fellowship and when that ended after three years, I transitioned to a quarter by quarter struggle to find a TA position. For my TA work, the university pays me at 50%, meaning I receive a salary based on 20 hours of work (despite the fact most TA’s work considerably more.) My annual stipend is $23,000, but it can vary anywhere from $15,000-35,000 depending on your source of funding and state. This money is intended to provide basic cost of living and for many students, especially those with dependents, it barely covers that. But we make due because there’s few other options, we love science, and we know that our work has a meaningful impact on our communities.

This stipend money, regardless of the source, is taxed. As it should be. But in addition to a small stipend these TA and RA positions include tuition waivers which are valued at anywhere from 12-50k a year. This waiver is basically the University paying itself for our tuition and under the current system it’s not considered income. The waiver is designed to offset the considerable costs of pursuing higher education in this country. And, because grad students aren’t just professionals in training, but are currently contributing to our universities (and communities at large) through our labor, research and publications, it seems reasonable that we shouldn’t be paying for work we do in their name.

Losing this tuition waiver would mean students like me would still be getting paid about $23,000 but taxed as if our salary was in the neighborhood of $60,000. In fact some grad students are poised to have the biggest tax hike of any demographic under this new plan. That’s not financially feasible for most people (including myself), especially those who have already accrued debt from their undergraduate education, or who come from low income families, or those supporting dependents. It would be a disaster for STEM. 

Let me be clear: I’m not trying to paint the plight of grad students as the most important casualty of this bill. There are lots of reason to oppose it and we can’t all be fighting the same battle when are are so many different ones underway. But if you are reading this because you know and appreciate my research, popular articles, #CrowOrNo, blog, or even if you just care about STEM…that it continues to exist and attracts people of all financial means, then I need you to call or write to your legislators. They need to know that their non-grad student, tax paying constituents want to keep people like me in school.  If you need any help navigating how to do this please use this resource: Action Alert! – Tax Reform.

I will be here to answer your crow questions from now until well after my run at grad school ends.  But this time I need you to return the favor.  Please contact your legislators.

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